24. "er" or "or" endings. The most common everyday words end in "er". e.g. baker, painter, teacher. If in doubt, use "or", when the meaning of the word is "one who" or "that which". e.g. author, director, instructor, indicator, conveyor, escalator.
Friday, December 21, 2012
CCSS ELA Reading Centers Grade 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 | Reading and Writing Centers | Cooperative Learning Centers
CCSS ELA Literacy Centers Grade 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 | Spelling and Writing Centers | Cooperative Learning Centers Grade 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
CCSS ELA Literacy Centers TASK CARD
Materials Needed 3X5 Flash Cards and Book Binder Rings
STUDENTS: take the Spelling Rules Booklet and find several new Spelling Rules and write the rules on a new 3x5 flashcard and find any new examples of the rules in your classroom reading materials. When you have completed your flashcard sit with your literacy partner and buddy buzz what you learned and teach your partner new words and rules you discovered. Extensions look through your weekly spelling words and find out if you can identify specific spelling rules.
Teachers: Have your students make a flash card with one of the many spelling rules with examples and attach it to their study ring.
Spelling Rules Booklet
1. "q" is always written as "qu". It never stands by itself. e.g. quick, queen, quarrel.
2. We double "l, f, and s" after a single short vowel at the end of a word. e.g. call, tall, toss, miss, stiff, stuff. Exceptions: us, bus, gas, if, of, this, yes, plus, nil, pal.
3. Regular plurals are made by adding "s". e.g. animals, horses, monkeys, and cliffs.
4. The sound of "ee" on the end of a word is nearly always "y". Exceptions: committee and coffee.
5. "y" and not "i" is used at the end of an English word and is usually pronounced as a short "i". Exceptions: macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli (Italian), and taxi (short for taxicab).
6. A silent "e" on the end of a word makes the vowel in front say its own alphabetic name. e.g. hate, ride, cube, bake, shire, mare, lobe. Exceptions: done, come, some, give and have.
7. "ck" may only be used after a single vowel that does not say its name at the end of a syllable or root word. e.g. track, pick, rocket, wreckage.
8. To form plurals of words with a hissing ending, add "es". i.e. after "s, x, z, sh, and ch".
e.g. buses, foxes, buzzes, wishes and churches.
9. Words ending in an "o" preceded by a consonant usually add "es" to form the plural. e.g. potatoes, volcanoes. Exceptions: pianos, solos, Eskimos
10. Nouns ending in a single "f" change the "f" to a "v" before adding "es" to form the plural. e.g. leaf – leaves; wolf – wolves. Exceptions: dwarfs, roofs, chiefs.
11. If a word ends in a consonant plus "y", change the "y" to and "i", before adding any ending. Except: "ing". e.g.
party – parties;
heavy – heaviness
marry – married;
funny – funnily
carry – carriage;
pretty – prettier
but; cry – crying;
hurry – hurrying
12. When "w" comes before "or" it often says "wer" as "worm". e.g. worship, worst, worth, work.
Exceptions: worry, worried, wore.
13. Words ending in both a single vowel and a single consonant always double the last consonant before adding an ending. e.g. stop, stopped, stopping. flat, flatter, flattest. swim, swimmer, swimming. Exceptions: fix, box, fox, mix. "x" is the same as "ck"; that is it counts as a double consonant ending.
14. When "c" is followed by "e", "i" or "y", it says "s". Otherwise it says "k". e.g. centre, ceiling, circle, cycle. cottage, cave, cream, curious, clever.
15. When "g" is followed by "i", "e" or "y", it says "j". Otherwise it says "g" as in gold. e.g. gentle, giant, gymnastic. gallon, gold, guide, glass, grow. Exceptions: get, got, begin, girl, give, gear, geese, gift, girth, geyser, giddy.
16. Drop the final "e" from a root word before adding an ending beginning with a vowel, but keep it before a consonant. e.g. love, loving, lovely. drive, driving, driver. settle, settled, settling.
17. "ti", "ci" and "si" are three spellings most frequently used to say "sh" at the beginning of all syllables except the first. e.g. national, patient, palatial, infectious.
gracious, ancient, musician, financial.
session, admission, mansion, division.
Exceptions: "ship" as a suffix, e.g. "worship".
18. "i" comes before "e" when it is pronounced "ee", except when it follows "c" – or when sounding like "a" as in "neighbor, or weigh". e.g. brief, field, priest. receive, deceive, ceiling.
Exceptions: neither, foreign, sovereign, seized, counterfeit, forfeited, leisure.
19. "all" and "well" followed by another syllable only have one "l". e.g. also, already, although, welcome, welfare.
20. "full" and "till" joined to another root syllable, drop one "l". e.g. useful, cheerful, until.
21. If a word of more than one syllable ends in a "t", preceded by a single vowel, and has the accent on the last syllable, then double the final consonant. e.g. permit; permitted. admit; admitted.
regret; regretted. But, if the accent is on the first syllable, don’t double the "t". e.g. visit; visited.
22. "ous" at the end of a word often means "full of". e.g. famous: full of fame. glorious; full of glory. gracious, ridiculous, furious, dangerous.
23. "al" at the end of a word often means "to do with". e.g. musical :to do with music. Criminal :to do with crime. Historical :to do with history.
25. "ery" or "ary" endings. Words ending in "ery" are often obvious. e.g. very, brewery, flattery, bakery, nursery. If in doubt, use "ary". e.g. dictionary, secretary, commentary, stationary.
26. Seven words ending in "ery" that might cause trouble. e.g. distillery, confectionery, millinery, cemetery, dysentery, monastery, stationery (paper).
27. "ise", "ize" or "yse" endings. Most of these words end in "ise". e.g. sunrise, surprise, supervise, exercise, disguise, unwise, surmise, advertise.
28. Only two common words end in "ize". i.e. prize and capsize.
29. "ceed", "sede" and "cede". Three "ceed" words; succeed, exceed, proceed.
One "sede" word; supersede. All others "cede" e.g. intercede, antecede, precede.
"able" or "ible" endings.
30. Use "able": After root words. e.g. available, dependable.
After root words ending in "e". e.g. desirable, believable, usable (drop the "e").
After "i". e.g. reliable, sociable. When other forms of the root word have a dominant "a" vowel. e.g. irritable, durable, abominable. After a hard "c" or "g". e.g. educable, practicable, navigable.
Exceptions: formidable, inevitable, memorable, probable, portable, indomitable, insuperable.
31. Use "ible" After non-root words. e.g. audible, horrible, possible.
When the root has an immediate "ion” form. e.g. digestible, suggestible, convertible.
After a root ending in "ns" or "miss". e.g. responsible, comprehensible, permissible.
32. After a soft "c" or "g". e.g. legible, negligible, forcible, invincible.
Exceptions: contemptible, resistible, collapsible, flexible.
The Spelling Rules are edited for American English students from http://www.amity.org.uk/Training/Spelling%20Rules/Spelling%20Rules.htm a
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